Subspecies. Institute of Biogeography and Genetic Resources, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, Roles Effective population size: N1 –Southeast Asian population; N2 –Arabian–South Asian population; N3 –Australian population; N2b and N3b –hypothetical founder population for Arabian–South Asian and Australian populations, respectively. Despite the fact that Creatonotos species are both economically and scientifically important, their phylogeographic patterns are almost unknown, although several broad phylogenetic reconstructions contain sequences of certain Creatonotos species [31,32,33]. The amount produced, and the size of the coremata which produce it, are however dependent on the diet that the moth experienced as a caterpillar. The time since expansion of Creatonotos transiens population was 196 ka. Our model predicts a relatively slow substitution rate in populations of Creatonotos gangis (mean rate 1.52×10−8 s/s/y, median rate 1.35×10−8 s/s/y, 95% CI 1.03×10−8–2.58×10−8 s/s/y). based on the 61 COI haplotypes reveals the three species-level clades with high Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP = 1.00) (Fig 1 and S1 Table). The HKY+G model was likely the best model of evolution for our data set in accordance with the AICc of MEGA6 . Both scenarios assume that Arabian–South Asian and Australian populations independently derived from Southeast Asian population, but the scenario 1-CG suggests more ancient divergence times (S5 Table). No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200, https://archive.org/details/notalepidopter3022007soci. Solid black lines indicate observed distribution, and solid red lines represent simulated distribution under a spatial expansion model. F YOU’VE never heard of ‘hair pencils’ before, feast your eyes on the bizarre Creatonotos gangis. Einzelnachweise Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 21. Bart Coppens 62,945 views. Copyright: © 2018 Spitsyn et al. For phylogenetic analyses, the sequence data set of Creatonotos spp. Our phylogenetic reconstructions also suggest that the Creatonotos gangis clade may include several subspecies-level taxa, e.g., from Australia and from Lesser Sundas, but a broader sampling is needed to access the fully resolved phylogeny with well-supported subspecies-level clades. A total sequence sample was subdivided in accordance with geographic areas and taxa: (i) Creatonotos gangis, Arabia and South Asia (N = 20); (ii) C. gangis, mainland Southeast Asia (N = 20); (iii) C. gangis, Eurasia (N = 40); (iv) C. gangis, Australia (N = 15); (vi) C. gangis, all available sequences (Eurasia + Lesser Sundas + Australia, N = 57); and (vii) C. transiens, Eurasia (N = 39). A total of 2×106 simulated data sets were calculated. Several shorter sequences were removed from the data set. In particular, the Arabian-South Asian population most likely derived from the Southeast Asian population before the Late Pleistocene (mean age 143.0 ka, median age 109.0 ka, 95% CI 55.8–359.0 ka), while the Australian population most likely originated in the Late Pleistocene (mean age 62.6 ka, median age 65.1 ka, 95% CI 19.3–96.9 ka) (Fig 5). Several other subspecies  are beyond the framework of the present study, and they are still waiting for molecular investigations. Its name forewarns you that it’s going to be obscure, and it doesn’t disappoint. The moths have a wingspan of about four centimetres.  Im Ruhezustand sind diese Duftorgane völlig im Hinterleib verborgen. Belonging to the Eribidae family of moths, the Creatonotos gangis moth looks like other moths most of the time but in the season of mating, it is showing the marvelous transformation and seems like a forgotten alien among earthlings. Evaluating the confidence in scenario choice using the direct (B) and linear regression (C) approaches. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian inference implemented in MrBayes v. 3.2.6 . Black numbers near branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP). Additionally, the published COI sequences of Creatonotos spp. Prior settings of the ABC analyses are presented in S5 Table. Contents. Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam, The median-joining network reflects the same pattern, with three groups of closely related haplotypes (1–4 mutational steps) corresponding to the three species, which are separated by 20–28 nucleotide substitutions (Fig 2). Creatonotos sensu stricto. (B) C. gangis, Arabia and South Asia (N = 20 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.264; Model (SSD) P = 0.273). The results of the ABC modeling reveal that the scenario 2-CG, which proposed more recent dispersal events into South Asia, Arabia and Australia, was assigned as the most likely scenario with a high posterior probability (Fig 4). No, Is the Subject Area "Paleogenetics" applicable to this article? Based on the approach of Grant & Bowen , large haplotype diversity together with small nucleotide diversity in Arabian-South Asian and Australian samples (h >0.5, π <0.5%) may indicate a population bottleneck since a founder event followed by rapid population growth and accumulation of mutations. The same phylogeographic pattern with a small genetic divergence between Southeast Asian and Australian populations was observed in other widespread species, e.g., Zizina otis (Fabricius, 1787), Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Asota caricae (Fabricius, 1775) [5,6,8], and even in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758) .  Bei einigen Männchen übertrifft die Länge der Duftorgane die Flügelspannweite, sie können bei anderen Arten aber auch sehr klein sein. (A) Median-joining network of COI sequences (see S1 Table for details). The most appropriate external COI mutation rate of 1.77×10−8 substitutions/site/year was applied, which is based on the mid-Aegean trench calibration using six genera of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) . At least to the lady moth, size does matter for the creatonotos gangis. Plus, their diet has an added protective effect. The primary sequence data set included three samples of Creatonotos gangis sequences: (i) Southeast Asia (N = 20); (ii) Arabia and South Asia (N = 20); and (iii) Australia (N = 15). Methodology, Affiliation Yes Creatonotos Gangis moth uses odd structures on its abdomen called coremata to spread pheromones. Footage of a bizarre moth has gone viral on social media. The strange Creatonotos gangis moth from South East Asia atrracts mates using amazingly long, hydroxydanaidal producing scent organs called coremata. 9821-15) (http://www.nationalgeographic.com). In general, the results of our phylogenetic and population genetic analyses support the conclusion that both Creatonotos gangis and C. transiens are widespread polymorphic species. Yes The explosion of media interest for this creature after the Facebook has earned thousands of shares of the Indonesian video, brought so many wrong … 26.03.2018 - Ken Kemp hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Type I and Type II errors for the choice of scenario 2-CG in accordance with the direct approach were 0.234 and 0.144, respectively. We suggest that such species can exist as the huge metapopulations with broad ranges, which may cover extensive areas within one or even two continents, and hence these taxa do not reveal clear spatial differentiation on geographic races (subspecies). Typische Beispiele für Schmetterlinge, die Coremata-Organe besitzen sind Creatonotos- (Bärenspinner), beispielsweise Creatonotos gangis, und Teleiopsis-Arten, aber auch Tagfalter, beispielsweise Eumaeus atala. Creatonotos fasciatus is a moth of the family Erebidae. This is a male, and the strange structures you can see are called corematas. The extreme polyphagy of larvae could explain a broad ecological niche in both species [18,19,20,21]. Modeling results, obtained under the scenario 2-CG, reveal the most recent dating of divergence times for the splits between populations of Creatonotos gangis (S4 Table). No, Is the Subject Area "Australia" applicable to this article? L'abdomen és vermell o, més rarament, groc. The insect is known as a Creatonotos gangs. Creatonotos gangis is a species of arctiine moth found in South East Asia and Australia. The appearance features of Creatonotos gangis adults include a pair of white hindwings, brown forewings with the dark stripe showed up and the red color abdomen. The other studied species, Creatonotos transiens, shows relatively shallow genetic divergence between populations across the entire distribution range, which suggests a possible sudden population expansion during the Late Pleistocene. The Polar tiger moth Arctia tundrana (Tshistjakov, 1990) shares closely related haplotypes across the Eurasian Arctic at the distance of ~5,000 km . There are three subclades of the Creatonotos gangis haplotypes with moderate support: Southeast Asia (BPP = 0.94), Australia (BPP = 0.91), and South Asia + the Arabian Peninsula + Lesser Sundas (BPP = 0.75). Creatonotos gangis: don’t tell anyone but that frightening looking creature is apparently just a moth. The second species, Creatonotos transiens, also has a broad range, situated within Southeast Asia . Formal analysis, Close. With respect to our approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model, the expansion of Creatonotos gangis into Australia is placed in the Late Pleistocene (~65–63 ka). No, Is the Subject Area "Haplotypes" applicable to this article? Interestingly, Creatonotos gangis appears to be highly adapted to rice, because the highest percentage of larval survival to pupation and the shortest larval development period occurred on this plant , hence it is an abundant species on rice fields . Ein Corema kann bis zu 0,5 Milligramm des Pheromons Hydroxydanaidal enthalten.. Simon White The West Australian. Red arrows indicate the directions of expansion routes. Text Size. Creatonotos gangis Eine Motte mit riesigen Tentakeln - vor diese Kreatur fürchtet sich das Netz Diese Kreatur sieht aus, als wäre sie einem Alien-Film entsprungen. In contrast, Creatonotos transiens does not reveal such a spatial structure, with the only divergent haplotype from India (Western Ghats). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g003. (A) C. gangis, Eurasia (N = 40 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.342; Model (SSD) P = 0.317). Play Video. The size of these scent organs are dependent on the diet that the moth experienced as a caterpillar. moths emerged 7-11 days after pupation. where τ is a moment estimator that represents a unit of mutational time, inferred from the mode of mismatch distribution, and μ is a mutation rate (%) per site per generation [7,49,50,51]. März 2019 um 22:53 Uhr bearbeitet. The size of coremata and the pheromone biosynthesis are directly controlled by the quantity of hostplant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids ingested by the larvae [29,30,18]. Data curation, All of the other samples of Creatonotos gangis and the sample of C. transiens reveal large haplotype diversity (h >0.85) and large nucleotide diversity (π >0.5%). (D) C. gangis, Australia (N = 15 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.910; Model (SSD) P = 0.736). Finally, the two integrative biogeographic scenarios concerning the possible origin of Creatonotos gangis populations were designed (S5 Table). The red number near each primary clade is the probability of each species-level MOTU based on the highest Bayesian supported solution of the PTP model. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s001. Adult males secrete the pheromone hydroxydanaidal in order to attract mates. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, With respect to the morphology-based taxonomy, it appears to be a complex of closely related taxa ranged from the Middle East to Northern Australia . Runs were conducted for 25 million generations. new (suggested) View discussions in 1 other community.  provides an evidence for intervisibility between Timor and Australia at approximately 65–62 ka, which corresponds to the time of Creatonotos gangis expansion inferred from our ABC model. With respect to the approach of Grant & Bowen , the Australian and Arabian-South Asian populations of Creatonotos gangis differ by large haplotype diversity (h ranges from 0.54 to 0.66) and small nucleotide diversity (π ranges from 0.2 to 0.4%) . These moths are characterized by the dual mating system (both males and females produce pheromone) and the gigantic scent-bearing male coremata (androconia) [27,28]. 6:41. The two out-group taxa were retained for the analysis, because the number of in-group taxa was low that may biased the delimitation results. Mit den dann abgegebenen Pheromonen wird den Weibchen dadurch eine individuelle Partnerwahl ermöglicht. e0194200. KM111174 and KM111175, respectively). shares . According to the ‘mid-Aegean’ mutation rate of 1.77×10−8 s/s/y (substitutions/site/year), the mean time since expansion of the Arabian-South Asian population of Creatonotos gangis was 640 ka (thousands of years) and that of the Australian population was 67 ka (S3 Table). The sample of Creatonotos transiens from Eurasia shows a bimodal distribution with peaks at 1 and 6 bp. Recently, I came across the Creatonotos gangis moth. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g005. (F) C. transiens, Eurasia (N = 39 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.671; Model (SSD) P = 0.596). This moth takes courtship so seriously, it spreads its pheromones using enormous, inflatable appendages that unfurl from deep inside its abdomen. März 2019 um 21:53 Uhr bearbeitet. This human expansion was largely driven by orbital-scale global climate swings  that could have been accelerated a long-distance dispersal of Creatonotos gangis and other Asian insect taxa. nos. The males have four eversible coremata at the tip of the abdomen which emit pheromones, each when inflated is longer than the abdomen. Small squares indicate island sites. The model checking indicated that posterior combination under each scenario corresponded well with a target data set (S2 Fig), which confirmed the ‘goodness-of-fit’ of the models . The molecular-based investigations revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized [3,4], e.g., 90% of Australian hawkmoths are endemic to the continent or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions . Australia, Arabia + South Asia and Southeast Asia. Durch die in einigen Nahrungspflanzen der Raupen enthaltenen giftigen Pyrrolizidinalkaloide, die eigentlich der Abwehr von Fressfeinden dienen, wird meist auch die Größenentwicklung der Coremata sowie die Menge der produzierten Pheromone gesteuert. Va ser descrita per Carl von Linné en el seu Centuria Insectorum (1763). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g002. The general samples of Creatonotos gangis (Eurasia and all available sequences) also reveal multiple peaks, whereas the Australian population has a unimodal distribution with the maximum value at 0 bp. Mon, 23 October 2017 4:28PM. His white, black, red and yellow … Using the fifty-percent majority-rule Bayesian consensus tree (see above), two runs of 100,000 generations were executed with the first 10% discarded as a burn-in based on the convergence of log-likelihood values (S1 Fig). (1) However, our wide-scale phylogeny reveals that this taxon is rather a variation of Creatonotos gangis, because the available COI sequence of C. omanirana falls within the C. gangis clade and the morphological differences between these taxa are small [15,34] (Figs 1 and 2). As an out-group, two additional COI haplotypes of Arctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846) and A. tundrana (Tshistjakov, 1990) were used (GenBank acc. Els adults tenen les ales posteriors blanques i les ales anteriors marrons, cadascuna amb una ratlla fosca i una envergadura de 40 mm. Taking into account the above-mentioned broad ranges of our studied species, we assumed that they likely represent species complexes, each of which contains several cryptic species-level taxa. Creatonotos gangis is a kind of common tropical moth which mainly distribute in South-east Asia and northern Australia, and it was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1763 (Carl, 1763). Er wurde von Carl Linnaeus 1763 in seiner Centuria Insectorum als Phalaena Gangis beschrieben. Population genetic diversity indexes (haplotype and nucleotide diversity), Tajima’s D-test and Fu’s F-test statistics and the mismatch distribution under a spatial expansion model were calculated using Arlequin v. 126.96.36.199 software to estimate the demographic histories of sampled populations [47,48]. 78% Upvoted. Convergence of the MCMC chains to the stationary distribution was checked visually based on the plotted posterior estimates using a MCMC trace analysis tool (Tracer v1.6 ). The map was created using ESRI ArcGIS 10 software (www.esri.com/arcgis); the base of the map was created with ESRI Data and Maps. In-Group taxa was low that may biased the delimitation results Myanmar, Thailand ecological niche both. Duftorgane die Flügelspannweite, sie können bei anderen Arten aber auch sehr klein sein insightful comments the! 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